Using Google Keyboard in L2 Writing: Impacts on Lexical Errors Reduction


Mobile Assisted Language Learning, lexical errors, EFL writing, educational technology, Google keyboard (Gboard)

How to Cite

Valizadeh, M. (2021). Using Google Keyboard in L2 Writing: Impacts on Lexical Errors Reduction. Journal of Language Teaching and Learning, 11(2), 61-80. Retrieved from


The current study investigated the effects of integrating Google keyboard (Gboard) into L2 writing and the associated effects on lexical error reduction. The participants were 47 intermediate Turkish English as a foreign language (EFL) learners. The learners were divided into four groups (one control group and three experimental groups), and during the study, they were asked to write paragraph-length responses to a number of topics during classroom hours. The participants in the control group used pencil and paper in their writing, yet the participants in two experimental groups produced four responses using Gboard and four responses using pencil and paper at different weeks, and one experimental group used Gboard for writing about all the topics. Data analyses indicated that the use of Gboard resulted in a significant reduction of various lexical errors and increased accuracy ratios in the participants’ written responses. The implications of the study have been discussed.