Stressed Intonation on Recasts: Differential Effects in Comparison with Prompts


Form-focused instruction, corrective feedback, recasts, prompts, interaction


This study investigates the differential effects perceptual saliency of recasts in comparison with prompts in the Japanese-as-a-foreign-language (JFL) classrooms in terms of learners’ immediate uptake. Motivated by cognitive aspect of language acquisition, it is hypothesized that one crucial factor to determine the effectiveness of recasts is perceptual saliency (e.g., stressed intonation). From 20 hours of first- and second-year level JFL classrooms, two types of recasts (nonsalient recasts vs. salient recasts with stressed intonation and/or facial expression) and prompts were examined on their impacts upon learners’ immediate uptake. The results provide a clear picture of differential effects of each feedback, indicating that perceptual saliency adds power to the effectiveness of recasts in triggering learners’ noticing and self-correction, while prompts were not affected by perceptual saliency to the similar extent. Perceptual saliency on negotiation moves made clear on their errors but learners further needed positive evidence for self correction.